This week we studied the principle of selection, based on the figure/ground dialetics. It is an interesting discussion how much the designer should differentiate figure from ground, and how much we should invite our students to process and organize the information by themselves, which could probably lead to deeper learning and retention.
Anyway, we should avoid excess of extraneous information, take care with novelty that might call the attention more than the core information and with the 1+1=3 threat, mixing figure and ground, or generating a competition between both. These are nice examples:
Orienting rules are to be concise and concentrated in the visual design.